Earman argues that even if the prior probability of a miracle occurring is very low, if there are enough independent witnesses, and each is sufficiently reliable, its occurrence may be established as probable. I believe that all those to whom I have referred, even those with whom I disagree most strongly, have contributed significantly to our understanding of ethics: The force of these cases is to show how similar they are to the regress of contingent explanations.
I am nowhere mainly concerned to refute any individual writer. However, an omnipotent and omniscient being could have prevented them from occurring, and an omnibenevolent being would have not allowed any significant pointless evils to occur if they could have been avoided.
If God does know you will freely do some act X, then it is true that you will indeed do X. That is, it is possible that the event is simply uncaused or spontaneous.
However, reasonable nonbelief does occur. The circumstances of an Antarctic habitat are not analogous to those in which we normally observe squid. Utilizing the resources of her own religious tradition, Adams pushes theodicy beyond a general theism to an expanded Christian theism utilizing a Christocentric theological framework.
If God is somehow at or in all times, is God simultaneously at or in each? If one had such knowledge, a particular miracle may turn out to be highly probable.
There is a range of accounts of analogous predication, but the most common—and the one assumed here—is that terms are used analogously when their use in different cases John limps and the argument limps is based on what is believed to be a resemblance.
A different problem arises with respect to eternity and omniscience. It is not as though I set about to fire my neurons as part of a procedure aimed ultimately at bringing it about that my muscles contract and my fingers move.
And what is the relevant background information with respect to the claim? But given our observations of the pains and pleasures experienced by sentient creatures, including their biologically gratuitous experiences such as those brought about by biological evolutionthe hypothesis of indifference provides a more reasonable account than theism.
There does not appear to be anything amiss in their thinking of God as necessarily existing; if the belief that God exists is incoherent this is not obvious. Philosophers taking this approach are unlikely to be satisfied with the conception of a miracle as a gesture. The Times called the book "a lucid discussion of moral theory which, although aimed at the general reader, has attracted a good deal of professional attention.
The concept of an all-good, loving God just does not seem plausible in the face of the overwhelming amount of suffering in the world. A God outside of time might know that at midnight on 1 July certain things occur, but could God know when it is now that time?
Past regularities do not establish that it is impossible that a natural law should ever be suspended Purtill Barnes and Noble, No one, of course, thinks that the report of an event that might be taken as a miracle—such as a resurrection or a walking on water—is logically self-contradictory.
Hick imagines a world that is designed to be a paradise absent of all pain and suffering, showing just how radically different such a world would have to be in order to work.
While the apologist may wish to proceed by asking the skeptic to abandon his assumption that ordinary experience is relevant to assessing the truth of miracle reports, this seems to beg the question in the opposite direction. Mackie spends most of the article considering various responses to this question.
This may be a naive conception of natural law; nevertheless it is true that, all things being equal, we can assign a minimal probability to the occurrence of a counterinstance to any of these generalizations.
Hick presents what he feels are two of the weaker solutions to this problem, beginning with the explanation offered by contemporary Christian Science that because good and evil are human concepts, we cannot apply these standards to an infinite being such as God.
If there are accounts for things in the cosmos, why not for the whole?
Antony Flew thinks it is the theist. I believe that all those to whom I have referred, even those with whom I disagree most strongly, have contributed significantly to our understanding of ethics: One way of responding to such arguments is to attempt to demonstrate that there is, after all, a point to each of the seemingly gratuitous evils.
The argument is not built on the fallacy of treating every whole as having all the properties of its parts. Essays in Cross-Cultural Philosophy of Religion. Miracle Belief in miracles and supernatural events or occurrences is common among world religions.
To ask whether God exists is not to ask a theoretical question. Perhaps if there is a God, God does not think this is altogether bad, and actually desires religious belief to be fashioned under conditions of trust and faith rather than knowledge. However, as we will see in sections 10 and 11, belief in miracles does not obviously commit one to belief in supernatural causes or the efficacy of supernatural explanations.
In his book, Natural Theology, Paley offers an argument from analogy: Reference and Realism in Religion. If true, it does not follow that there is an ideal observer, but if it is true and moral judgments are coherent, then the idea of an ideal observer is coherent. Should an ideal observer theory be cogent, a theist would have some reason for claiming that atheists committed to normative, ethical judgments are also committed to the idea of a God or a God-like being.Philosophy of religion is the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religious traditions.
It involves all the main areas of philosophy: metaphysics, epistemology, logic, ethics and value theory, the philosophy of language, philosophy of science, law, sociology, politics, history, and so on. Philosophy of religion is a branch of philosophy concerned with questions regarding religion, including the nature and existence of God, the examination of religious experience, analysis of religious vocabulary and texts, and the relationship of religion and science..
J.L. Mackie's "Evil and Omnipotence" The philosopher J.L. Mackie wrote a very convincing piece on the problem of evil called “Evil and Omnipotence,” in which he attempts to show that one of the following premises must be false in order for them to be consistent with each other.
#1. God is. Philosophy of Religion. Philosophy of religion is the philosophical study of the meaning and nature of religion.
It includes the analyses of religious concepts, beliefs, terms, arguments, and practices of religious adherents. Philosophy of religion. STUDY. Believed in rational separation of philosopher and subject. This included socrates, aristotle, and plato.
Platonic philosophy. a philosophy that held that the most perfect form of something was the idea of it, not an actual thing. our religion is not important because it refers to some god: our religion is.
God Can Allow Some Evil Classic Philosophical Questions Part 3 - Philosophy of Religion John Hick, from Philosophy of Religion Kem Stone - 30 August An objection to this solution is offered by J.
L. Mackie, who contends that that if God can create people who are.Download